Launch of the National Youth Summit

On the 13th of November, with support from government and the Business community, Swazi Jive launched a National Youth Summit, to be held in 2018…

I was asked to make a keynote address, articulating the impact of such an initiative for the Swazi Youth.

Here it is…

‘When asked to speak as a youth representative, the thought of such an important task overwhelmed me greatly. What does one say that could accurately represent a largely unemployed 79 percent of Swaziland? The task seems too big for me, so I will speak for myself and hope that standing in my own truth inspires my fellow youth to lift their voices in commitment to collective effort at combating youth unemployment in Swaziland.

Statistics on youth unemployment are abundant in the public domain – I am sure we are all well aware of just how staggering the numbers are, hence we have gathered here to do something about it. Numerous initiatives have been launched to help the youth, some more successful than others, and we can’t say that there is a lack of will or awareness to address these issues. The question then becomes, are we focusing on the right things? We are well aware of what we don’t have, but today I would like to talk about what we do have.

I have engaged, extensively with my peers in Swaziland and I have come to realise that the narrative of homogeneity is somewhat of a fallacy. Yes, we have much in common, but our potential lies in our diversity. Swazi youth is refreshingly diverse in all our forms, and it is at the intersections of our differences that we find our potential for growth. From this it follows that our interests and talents vary greatly from business to art to academia to entertainment. The truth is, the talents of our youth go beyond the traditional models of supply and demand, and hence re-evaluating the notion of entrepreneurship to consider how enterprise can be developed to service a diverse pool of talent may be a good place to start. 

Creating opportunities for employment cannot be informed by approaches that are ignorant to the needs of the people being accommodated. Yes, we are here to talk about business, but it is my request that we remember to keep the human being at the centre of everything we do. In a capitalist society, where people are ranked according to their capacity for labour, it may seem disingenuous to tend to the finer details of the human condition but despite it, this summit presents an opportunity to do things differently. More holistically. More sustainably.

 I appeal to government and the private sector to allow the youth to introduce themselves to you for what they can offer, and I promise you will be amazed at the diversity of talent circulating amongst us. Do not disregard the wealth of knowledge we hold about ourselves, but invite us to the table to share our minds with you as we learn and teach in equal measure. Let us find ways to start building environments that encourage growth of an economy that accommodates difference and explores new ways to stimulate not only economic growth but human growth. Let us remember that in building an inclusive economy we must learn to interact with each other without prejudice. We are a people of varied genders, sexualities, classes, abilities, religions and interests. The places at which our differences meet become the spaces in which we learn.

I would like to thank Swazi Jive, the Swaziland National Youth Council and the Youth Enterprise Revolving Fund for putting weight behind such an important endeavour and remaining a symbol of achievement and possibility to Swazi youth. This summit attests to the fact that we have not given up, and although challenged, we are never exhausted of efforts to create the country we want to live in.

 I am excited for what the fruitful discussions in the coming weeks will deliver and I am honoured to be able to share with you this morning. Change is a slow process, but there is strength in our diversity. If we are to be sincere about change, we must embrace our differences for we will get nowhere if we leave anyone behind. 

Finally, I thank you for the opportunity to centre the voice of the youth here, for there can be no conversations about us, without us!’


Clarity on REAct Program

REAct programme information sheet

Positive Vibes as part of the KP REACH Consortium is engaged in the implementation of a three year Rights Evidence Action (REACT) programmeKP REACH works in eight countries to address the higher levels of HIV infection among Key Populations, including sex workers, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and transgender persons.

The information provided below provides a detailed view of the programme:

What Is REAct?

Rights–Evidence – ACTion (REAct) is a community-based and –owned human rights monitoring and response system.

What Does REAct provide?

REAct provides a methodology and system for monitoring, recording and responding to gender and human rights barriers in accessing health, HIV and other services at a community level.

Who is REAct for?

REAct is designed for community-based and civil society organisations (such as RoH) that focus on human rights and HIV programming, and advocacy for ‘key populations’. The programme has trained designated REActors who facilitate the achievement of the programmes goals. Their roles are the following:

What can REActors do

REActors document gender and human rights related barriers and violations in accessing health, HIV and other services in order to:

1. Provide adequate individual responses, including referrals

2. Influence the change of practices at a community and service provision level that perpetuate (and condone) rights abuses

3. Inform quality human rights based HIV programming, policy and advocacy at a national, regional and global level

4. Identify community needs relating to human rights and HIV Programming – ranging  from legal literacy to stakeholder engagements, including law reform and access to justice


REActors should align themselves with the objectives of REAct, remembering that it is ‘people centred’, not ‘case centred’.

The Primary Objective is to support individuals with crisis response and human rights-based programmes (i.e., ‘people-centred’) – referrals and emergency response mechanisms are core to REAct.


The Secondary objectives of REAct are ‘case centred’.

These are:

1. Advocacy – to document gender and human rights incidences with direct and/or indirect responsibilities of the state

2. Analysis – to link gender and human rights incidences with accessing health, HIV, and gender violence services

3. Awareness Raising/Legal Literacy – to Identify and respond to community needs to be better positioned to address gender and human rights abuses.


What can Rock oHope do?

As an organization that does its work within the boundaries of Swazi society and hence under the rule of Swaziland’s laws, The Rock of Hope frames its affiliation to the REAct programme in these terms. We respect the laws of the land, however understanding that said laws do at times violate the basic human rights of LGBTI and other persons. Through the work we do and continue to dedicate ourselves to, we wish to change the conditions under which we work as a long term goal, so that future generations may have less resistance to contend with. 

Over and above this, we are continuously working with the Royal Swaziland Police, Ministry of Health (SNAP), CANGO, PPA (Public Prosecution Authority), HURISWA (Human Rights Society of Swaziland), etc. These are entities of legal standing which demand every shred of respect in their line of work. This means that we cannot be seen, as an organisation, to undermine and disregard their work. However, this is a partnership that is based on mutual disdain for any human rights violations.

The Rock of Hope, like many Community Based Organisationthat have an interest in averting any human rights violations, is keen to make this mission is a reality. At the very top of our list of objectives is our desire and commitment to ‘promoting the protection of human rights,’ coupled with our advocacy for ‘legal recognition of LGBTI persons.’ If this objective is not evident enough through our determination towards working for the protection of the LGBTI person, from any and all human rights violation, it is at the very worst, an indication of our shortcomings to do so.

With all these points duly stated, The Rock of Hope remains committed in doing all that is within its power to protect the vulnerable LGBTI community, to the furthest extent enabled by the laws of the land.

Making Waves – Siyashukuma

Rock of Hope

The rock of hope, with assistance from the US Embassy, is creating social spaces for the LGBTI community in Swaziland. While ensuring confidence and capabilities for the LGBTI persons, we are embarked on a better-quality and enhanced advocacy exercise.

Our mission is to ensure that LGBTI persons gain acceptance within the communities they reside. As a part of our legal advocacy in ensuring protection, conducive policy environment, respect for basic human rights, etc.; we are embarking on a 3 phase approach for equipping LGBTI persons with tools and forums necessary for enhancing meaningful civic participation, advocacy, and discourse on LGBTI rights and issues across the spectrum in Swaziland.

Phase 1

Starting on the 14th of October, phase 1 will entail an engagement with the LGBTI through SOGIE-themed films. Each film will be chosen based on its ability to present a different perspective of the LGBTI community. RoH staff will identify and recruit attendees who exhibit leadership qualities (e.g., repeated attendance, passion for LGBTI rights, outspokenness during discussions, etc.) for future leader training activities.


Phase 2

This stage involves capacitating LGBTI leaders to identify strategic targets and mobilize their communities toward united civic participation and advocacy. RoH will host a weekend-long retreat for LGBTI leaders identified in Phase I aimed at empowering and capacitating them to mobilize their communities.

Sessions will be co-led by the American volunteer and RoH staff members to ensure American best practices are adequately adapted for the Swazi context. This training, which will be held over a period of 3 days, will encompass capacitating local LGBTI members of society to self-advocate for their rights, mobilize, and recruit sectoral allies in society.


Phase 3                                               

This being the final stage, is the provision of forums to the newly capacitated LGBTI leaders to apply their skills in community mobilization, and ally recruitment. Correspondingly, certification will be awarded to the achieving individuals for their newly found skills.




  1. Engage and educate LGBTI community members via sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) diversity American film-viewing events
  2. Identify and capacitate LGBTI leaders to mobilize community members and ally institutions using best practices from American settings
  3. Demonstrate feasibility of LGBTI leaders’ ability to mobilize community members and recruit allies for improving LGBTI equality in Swazi society

Challenging Gender Stereotypes or Cultural Appropriation

The other day, we woke up to this 

 White people have colonised us, rewritten our history and demoralised our customs and way of life. We have let them change even the way we see ourselves. We have put our own lives in their hands, and allowed them to be our moral compass. This is why in this heritage month, in RSA, we are experiencing an increasing number of white people appropriating our culture.

Look at the simplest of examples: 
If a white person eats with their hands, we glorify them and congratulate them (Facebook CEO ate with his hands in Nigeria, I think)

If a white person speaks an African native language, we sing hurrah and celebrate them.(this is evident every day)
However, have we ever congratulated a black man for eating with a fork, or speaking the white languages (French and or English)? The answer is no.

We live each and every day trying to please our colonial masters. And I use present tense, because, in as much as we have been liberated, as a black people from their colonies, we still live in modern day colonialism i.e. neocolonialism. 
So, to see and have white people appropriate our culture has become so normal that they feel entitled to our culture. (Though it’s a culture they have rewritten and misrepresented in some cases. It is still our culture)

I frown upon this appropriation of our culture. This is not only modern day colonialism, it is plain disrespect and disregard for who we are as an African diaspora.

You look at the Black Lives Matter movement and its rival, All Lives Matter, and you get to realise that, the white person is truly disinterested in living and letting live.

All they want to do is be at the forefront of everything, even if it means disrespecting other people’s cultures.
This is why they feel they can even involve themselves in a black person’s struggle and make it about themselves.

Look, as an African diaspora we are fighting gender stereotypes and we frown upon any form of conformity.

This is as simple as saying that as a woman you cannot wear pants, and as a man you can not wear a skirt.

The question we ask is what qualifies a woman. Who is a woman? Does my sex tell me what gender I am, or does my gender identity come from my own comfort and expression? There is something called “Self Actualisation”, and any country that respects human rights will have to realise that I can self actualise and I need no doctor’s opinion nor do I need society’s opinion to validate who I am.

Now comes the issue of what I wear as the person who I identify as. If I identify as a woman, even though I might be referred to as a transgender woman, why is it wrong for me to dress up in clothing that best fits my identity?

It’s such questions that answer the whole issue around gender stereotypes. 

Then you will find someone arguing about who should wear what. I find it a bit nonsensical.  No-one should be out here judging what we wear. If we feel comfortable and identify to that gender, why shouldn’t we dress in accordance with that gender. Irrespective of popular belief…?

It’s a different issue if you have people appropriating your culture. Cultural appropraition is an issue because white people get the social benefits of playing dress up, while Africans are ridiculed and mocked for their cultures. However it’s a completely different narrative if you have a fellow African donning their traditional attire, proudly. As long as it is accordance with the gender they identify as. ‘Self-Actualisation’

Open Letter to UniSwa Registrar

In light of the recent memorandum, informing all University of Swaziland students at very short notice to vacate the premises and to return home for an indefinite period, I have found it necessary to ask a couple of questions to you Mr Simelane.

I am a 3rd year student, who has been in the University long enough to know that it is rather safe for one to never engage in any of the altercations between the student body and the administration, as history has taught many of us, the University will always end up as the victor. I have no affiliation to any bodies/parties within the Kwaluseni Campus. I am writing this letter on my own accord, with the utmost respect of the office you hold, and of course your person, as a Father (I imagine you have your own, Sir). I happen to be a Simelane too.

Yesterday I was overwhelmed with such heartache and sadness when I joined what seemed to be thousands of students (at least a couple of thousands), making their way out of the premises of the University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni Campus. The famous (for running over a student with their Casspir) Boys In Blue stood in formation at the gate as we walked out, in shame as we thought of what lied ahead of us. And these were not the normal Police you would see every day, these were the Military Police, OSSU.

As I walked, I was thinking about how much money and courage I will need to get to Ngcoseni, Mankayane. I also had to consider what my grandmother will think of my character, considering I am implicated in this, irrespective of the fact that I was not a part of yesterday’s lunacy. The way home became much longer as I started thinking about all the trouble I was/am in.

Firstly, I am told that on the registration week, there was a memorandum stating that no student body meetings were to be held on the university premises, at least until you have approved it, I assume. This kind of censorship is tantamount to spitting on the constitutional freedom of assembly, but that is not the issue here. By my understanding this, subsequently, means that under no circumstances were students able to have a resolution of any sort. I stand corrected.

I have since taken it upon myself to read the grievances of the students, which are no doubt valid and sincere…

  1. Students are concerned about the arrangement with the bookshop (including the extreme prices), and this cannot be more hurtful as it pertains to the government scholarship beneficiaries only.
  2. Students are complaining about the prices at the Refactory. With the free market economy of Swaziland, I fear this also affects the government scholarship beneficiaries
  3. Students require an immediate release of meal allowances. Government scholarship beneficiaries,
  4. Accommodation, and the allocation of it.
  5. Circular on disbursement of student fees from government department related to scholarship. Government scholarship beneficiaries
  6. Improvement of internet (Wi-Fi) coverage.

The above points are well documented on a memorandum that was circulated in the university. I would like to point out the trend of these concerns; Government Scholarship Beneficiaries.

Mr Registrar, Sir, why is it that almost each time you take such action, it is always informed by the squabble between government scholarship beneficiaries and the government itself, and yet it affects all students?

Why is it that even when there is no way the student body could have met to come up with a resolution, you allow some clearly overzealous students -whom I must admit might have been threaded on treasonous grounds when assaulting police and damaging their vehicle- to affect the very purpose we are all at the university for, which is to learn and acquire our degrees. This could have in no way been a student resolution, since there was no meeting, at least to my knowledge.

Why is it that, even if students potentially agree on a boycott to address their grievances, you still decide on shutting down the whole university, affecting the academic aspect of our university lives? We stand to suffer a loss of a minimum of 2 weeks, or more with this decision, when the students would have given up a day of classes, to send the message to the administration.

Mr Simelane, I have met a lot of people in my life, not so many who matter, but those who do have always had an intriguing question for me… ‘When do you guys learn, because you are either rioting or being sent home, and yet you come out with Bachelor’s Degrees?‘ I honestly hope to answer this question one day myself.

I am confident this letter will appeal to your sensibilities as a respected leader who can facilitate productive collaboration to reach an amicable solution. Above all, I hope that this letter appeals to your humanity as a citizen of Swaziland who wishes to see young future leaders gain the education that is essential to their prosperity and the future of the country.

Swaziland on LGBTI Health Access

The Kingdom of Swaziland (eSwatini) continues to miss the boat by several rivers on issues relating to access to healthcare for the LGBTI. The country’s upper house in parliament, Senate, has recently failed to see the importance of a debate on the lived experiences of each and every individual in the LGBTI community, when going to a state hospital.


Health is a fundamental human right, and on the premise of human rights. Human rights are commonly understood as “inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because they are a human being.” Human rights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). By virtue of health being a fundamental human right, it follows therefore that everyone should be able to access health care in the same manner as everyone. 

Health is a commodity that all humans should be able to enjoy in the amounts in which they all wish to have it. By virtue that health is a commodity, it therefore means that there are factors that will determine how humans will demand the commodity. There are pecuniary issues or rather financial issues that determine how individuals will access health care. And there are also non-financial barriers to access to health care or determinants thereof, these include but not limited to the following; 

Geographic location, service availability, affordability and acceptability. Let us zero in on acceptability. Acceptability has globally been defined to include the following;


  •  Characteristics of the health services – Management/staff efficiency 
  •  User’s attitudes and expectations – Technology 
  •  Household expectations 
  •  Community and cultural preferences, attitudes and norms 

In the design of health systems it is therefore imperative not only to focus on the business side of the entity. There are also social issues that need to be factored into the equation to ensure that every citizen receives the care that they deserve. Imagine walking into a shop and getting racial stares or being given attitudes by the shopkeeper, what would your first impulse be? Would you still stay and shop at that place or you would leave and go shop elsewhere? 

In some situations a consumer of the commodity has the right to vote with their feet and source the commodity elsewhere, however, with health care it is a commodity that we consume because we are sick and one requires it to improve their health. If then one cannot access health care because of the attitudes of health care workers, then that is tantamount to telling that one person to go die. Or, is it that the government values one life less compared to another? A life is a life regardless.

Constitutional Protection for the LGBTI

The constitution of Swaziland does indeed make provision for the rights and freedoms of individuals, but when specifying protection across various axes of difference, sexual orientation (and gender identity) is blatantly excluded. One can argue that all individuals are protected, but without an explicit statement on the differences which qualify for protection; personal views, preferences and prejudices can be enforced as the constitution, making it very difficult to prove discrimination. This means that the provisions made by the constitution exist in theory, but without the will to apply it fairly, it might as well not exist. 

When one is discriminated against, the constitution counts for very little in that moment because one can only take remedial action. When having to call on structures for protection from an act that has already been committed against one, the likelihood of encountering someone who shares the prejudiced views enforced to bring about the injustice is high. The official has power to enable or retard the retributive process and LGBTI people (and others) are often strangled by bureaucracy so they don’t bother to see the process through. The fact that practitioners are not sensitized around their duty to treat everyone fairly allows for personal prejudice to operate undetected, in a society where prejudice towards difference is normalized at various levels of society.

To say that the LGBTI is asking for special treatment at the expense of others is a misinterpretation of the motion. When they are not getting fair treatment and being discriminating against based on sexual orientation and gender identity, making special provisions in an unjust system is actually just equality. 

The LGBTI in Swaziland is not considered with the same respect and fairness that other citizens are, and hence their experiences are trivialized. Under these conditions the ability to access healthcare and treatment without fear of being denied treatment and victimization, is severely impaired. Making provisions to curb this is simply ensuring that the end result is that everyone gets the same service. 

The point is not the intention, by rather the consequence. At the moment, good intentions see LGBTI people excluded; hence more needs to be done to see them included as are all other citizens.

LGBT Specific Health Issues

LGBT individuals encompass all races and ethnicities, religions, and social classes. Research suggests that LGBT individuals face health disparities linked to societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of their civil and human rights. Discrimination against LGBT persons has been associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, and suicide. And need I value the economic and social costs for the above illnesses, refusing to provide some sort of protection to LGBTI people in terms of access to health care, will cost the country even more in impact mitigation.

Experiences of violence and victimization are frequent for LGBT individuals, and have long-lasting effects on the individual and the community. Personal, family, and social acceptance of sexual orientation and gender identity affects the mental health and personal safety of LGBT individuals.

Why LGBTI Health is Important

Eliminating LGBT health disparities and enhancing efforts to improve LGBT health are necessary to ensure that LGBT individuals can lead long, healthy lives. The many benefits of addressing health concerns and reducing disparities include:

  •  Reductions in disease transmission and progression
  •  Increased mental and physical well-being
  •  Reduced health care costs
  •  Increased longevity

The Honourable Senator Ngwenya was right to state that this will cost the country more in the medium to long term. Furthermore, she was justified in her argument that if Swaziland is really to win the fight against HIV, Cancer and other non-communicable diseases there is need to ensure effective investments in all population sub groups. Owing to the branching processes of diseases, that is the process through which diseases get transmitted from one person to the next.

Let us make this hypothetical scenario, if a bisexual person has two partners, one gay and one straight, if straight partner has HIV for example, it gets transmitted through the bisexual person to a gay person for example. And if gay human being has another straight MSM partner imagine the spread of the virus. By rejecting this motion, effectively it means senators have left that conduit of transmission wide open and with no room for recourse. 

The Research on LGBT Health and Trans Health

LGBT health requires specific attention from health care and public health professionals to address a number of disparities, including:

  •  LGBT youth are 2 to 3 times more likely to attempt suicide.
  •  LGBT youth are more likely to be homeless.
  •  Lesbians are less likely to get preventive services for cancer.
  •  Gay men are at higher risk of HIV and other STDs, 
  •  Lesbians and bisexual females are more likely to be overweight or obese.
  •  Transgender individuals have a high prevalence of HIV/STDs, victimization, mental health issues, and suicide and are less likely to have health insurance than heterosexual or LGBTI individuals.
  •  Elderly LGBT individuals face additional barriers to health because of isolation and a lack of social services and culturally competent providers.
  •  LGBTI populations have the highest rates of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use.

It is therefore, imperative that the health system be capacitated to deliver effective and efficient services to all population sub groups if we are to reach zero new HIV infections by 2022. If the country is to truly halt the spread of the cancer and other non-communicable diseases, it is imperative that we plan for all Swazi’s. Every life counts and it is imperative that we seek to ensure that we protect each and every life. No one has the right to play God, there is only one Judge and that Judge is God, ours as health care providers is to provide effective services to try and preserve each and every life.


Is the point about equality or equity? If a group of people have been denied access to certain services and had their rights disregarded, putting structures in place to correct that is not special treatment. Not affording that treatment to others is not discrimination because they already have it. This is equity. 

There is a gap that exists, and in order to close that gap more needs to be done for those who have been disenfranchised to allow them to catch up to those who are fairly treated and properly protected. Only once equity has corrected the imbalance can equality be considered where everyone is at the same starting point.

The Times Of Swaziland!

In light of an article entitled “Cops Called as Gays Hijack UNISWA Students [sic] Funeral” which was published in the Times of Swaziland on 31 July 2017, Rock of Hope would like to express regret and sadness at the lack of integrity displayed by the newspaper

Firstly, the title is sensational and dehumanising towards LGBTI individuals. The imagery created by the use of the term “hijack” invokes anarchy and criminality which only serves to reinforce existing toxic stereotypes of marginalised LGBTI individuals in Swaziland which legitimate prejudice and violence against the community. We condemn the use of such language as it distributes an untrue narrative (often used to justify denial of basic rights) about the LGBTI community that we are committed to dispelling through education and mutual engagement.

Secondly, the facetious and condescending tone of the explanation that “gays” are now referred to as members of the LGBTI community suggests that the use of the offensive term should still be acceptable if not for the demands of LGBTI individuals to be treated with dignity. The term removes the identities of LGBTI individuals as human and reduces them to objects. If the media will not afford the people they report on the courtesy of being referred to with terms that support their humanity, then their purpose becomes more destructive that informative.

Lastly, and most importantly, the events described in the article are not corroborated by any person in attendance of the funeral, besides an unidentified “resident” whose comment provides little clarity. This is alarming, considering that one of the cornerstones of journalism is substantiated facts that present a balance of views beyond what is only ‘alleged’. The Rock of Hope received confirmation from more than one individual in attendance that none of the events described in the article took place. Without such support, any article becomes merely an opinion piece by the writer. In this case, we take the article to be an irresponsible opinion piece by the journalist Joseph Zulu, and we dare say, he has a biased opinion and his intent was painting the LGBTI community with the same stereotyping, dehumanising and pernicious brush used by homophobic and transphobic bigots across the world.

To our knowledge, and as can be collaborated by several persons who were actually at the funeral of dear Mlondi Mabuza, the police presence was sanctioned by a tumult that erupted after a naked man was seen walking about. We can confirm that the man is believed to be mentally ill. The community had thought him to be a witch, which made many want to ‘burn him alive.’ This is when other community members decided to call on the police to intervene. Any other reason for the police presence in that area, at least to our understanding, can be plainly said to be a misunderstanding.

In light of the way Swaziland is already viewed for failing to uphold human rights from outside and within, this kind of reckless reporting only serves to break down the credibility of the causes being championed and makes a mockery of the collective efforts of activists and those in government trying to bring positive change. Also noteworthy is that the decision to publish the baseless article went beyond the jurisdiction of the journalist, implicating the editors as well.

The Rock of Hope has done extensive work with the media in Swaziland to sensitise journalists and editors to write with integrity and nuance when reporting on the LGBTI community. Our work as an organisation relies heavily on collaboration by all citizens to promote the human rights of all minority groups and LGBTI individuals.

We regret that this article was published in the name of the late Mlondi Mabuza, who was a valued friend & ally, and a bright student of UNISWA. We condemn any behaviour that further marginalises minority groups of which the LGBTI community is a part and would like to state for the record that the article referred to above is completely untrue.

This statement above can be substantiated and verified, if the need arises. And we must state it unequivocally and conclusively that, until another person comes to us with valid proof of the incident as related to by the Times of Swaziland, the Times of Swaziland has mislead the nation.

We call on the Times of Swaziland to issue an apology and a retraction of the article. Or at the very least, substantiate their notion, with facts.